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SUMMARY of the article “Climate crossroads,” Editorial, published on November 29, 2023


The upcoming COP28 in the UAE marks a crucial moment for Pakistan, one of the countries most susceptible to climate change, to present its case. Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar, accompanied by Foreign Minister Jalil Abbas Jilani and Minister for Climate Change Ahmed Irfan Aslam, will advocate for the implementation of the Loss and Damage fund. This fund, established last year based on Pakistan’s successful argument that the impacts within the country have global repercussions, is pivotal for climate-vulnerable nations. The PM will also call on developed countries to fulfill their overdue commitment of $100 billion annually as climate finance for developing nations. Having endured the severe consequences of climate-induced disasters, including last year’s devastating floods affecting 33 million people, Pakistan emphasizes the disproportionate impact on developing nations despite their minimal contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) is a comprehensive strategy aimed at mitigating these impacts, but the financial gap is substantial, with the World Bank estimating that Pakistan needs $348 billion by 2030 to maintain resilience. The article highlights the need for a radical overhaul of the international financial system to better support climate-vulnerable countries. The Global Goal on Adaptation and the Loss and Damage fund need urgent attention, and the implementation of UN recommendations to scale up renewable funding is crucial. Additionally, the role of the private sector in promoting climate-resilient investments is emphasized.

Easy/Short SUMMARY:

COP28, starting in the UAE, is a significant event for Pakistan, a country highly affected by climate change, to appeal for crucial measures. Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar will advocate for the Loss and Damage fund’s implementation and stress the long-overdue commitment of $100 billion annually from developed nations for climate finance. Pakistan, despite contributing minimally to global emissions, faces severe climate-induced disasters, necessitating financial support. The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) outlines a strategic approach, but the required funds, estimated at $348 billion by 2030, present a challenge. The article underscores the urgency for global leaders to address climate justice, emphasizing the importance of the Loss and Damage fund, UN recommendations for renewable funding, and private sector involvement.

SOLUTIONS of The Problem:

Tailor Loss and Damage Fund for Specific Needs

Advocate for tailoring the Loss and Damage fund to meet the specific requirements of vulnerable nations like Pakistan, ensuring a focus on grant-based public finance as the primary source of capital.

Fulfill Commitment of Climate Finance

Pressure developed countries to fulfill their long-overdue commitment of $100 billion annually as climate finance for developing nations, enabling them to better cope with climate-induced challenges.

Implement UN Recommendations for Renewable Funding

Act on UN secretary general recommendations to scale up renewable funding, emphasizing the importance of renewable energy in combating climate change and enhancing sustainability.

Strengthen Global Goal on Adaptation

Channel efforts to address the under-capitalization of the Global Goal on Adaptation, a commitment under the Paris Agreement, to effectively reduce vulnerability to climate change.

Enhance Role of Private Sector

Promote and incentivize the private sector to play a more significant role in climate-resilient investments, providing structural support for sustainable development and adaptation.

IMPORTANT Facts and Figures Given in the article:

  • Pakistan’s Prime Minister, along with key ministers, will advocate for the Loss and Damage fund’s implementation and the commitment of $100 billion annually in climate finance for developing nations at COP28.
  • Last year’s floods affected 33 million people in Pakistan, highlighting the disproportionate impact of climate change on developing nations.
  • The World Bank estimates Pakistan needs $348 billion by 2030 to maintain resilience against climate-induced challenges.
  • The financial gap to achieve climate-linked Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in developing countries has widened to $5.2 trillion annually.
  • The National Adaptation Plan (NAP) aims to integrate climate-adaptation goals into every facet of development planning in Pakistan.
  • The Global Goal on Adaptation, a collective commitment under the Paris Agreement, remains under-capitalized.
  • The Loss and Damage fund, crucial for climate-vulnerable nations, is yet to be made functional.

MCQs from the Article:

  1. What is the primary focus of Pakistan’s plea at COP28?
    A. Technological advancements
    B. Loss and Damage fund and climate finance
    C. Cultural exchange
    D. Military alliances

  2. How many people were affected by last year’s floods in Pakistan?
    A. 10 million
    B. 33 million
    C. 50 million
    D. 20 million

  3. What is the estimated financial gap for Pakistan to maintain resilience by 2030?
    A. $100 billion
    B. $348 billion
    C. $50 billion
    D. $500 billion

  4. What commitment does the Prime Minister urge developed countries to fulfill at COP28?
    A. Military support
    B. $100 billion annually as climate finance
    C. Cultural exchange programs
    D. Technological collaborations

  5. What is the focus of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) in Pakistan?
    A. Military strategy
    B. Technological advancements
    C. Integrating climate-adaptation goals into development planning
    D. Loss and Damage fund implementation

VOCABULARY:

  1. Catastrophes (noun) (آفات): Sudden and widespread disasters.

  2. Disproportionate (adjective) (غیر متناسب): Not in proportion, unequal.

  3. Resilience (noun) (پوری طرح برابر ہونے کی صلاحیت): The ability to recover quickly from difficulties.

  4. Radical Overhaul (phrase) (جذباتی تبدیلی): A complete and fundamental change.

  5. Under-capitalised (adjective) (غیر متناسب سرمایہ کاری): Lacking sufficient capital.

  6. Framework (noun) (ڈھانچہ): A basic structure underlying a system.

  7. Urgency (noun) (فوراً): The state of being urgent; importance requiring swift action.

  8. Channel Efforts (phrase) (کوششوں کو ہدایت کرنا): Directing endeavors towards a specific goal or objective.

  9. Incentivize (verb) (متعہ دینا): Motivate or encourage.

  10. Sustainability (noun) (قائم

رہنمائی): The capacity to endure and maintain over the long term.

  1. Advocate (verb) (حمایت کرنا): Publicly support or recommend.

  2. Pivotal (adjective) (دورہ میدانی): Of crucial importance.

  3. Mitigate (verb) (کم کرنا): Make less severe, serious, or painful.

  4. Diplomatic Engagement (noun) (دبلومیٹک مصالحت): Interaction and negotiation between countries for diplomatic purposes.

  5. Equitable (adjective) (انصافی): Fair and impartial.

  6. Collective Commitment (noun) (جماعتی عہد): Joint promise or obligation undertaken by a group.

  7. Functional (adjective) (فعال): Capable of operating or working.

  8. Severe (adjective) (شدید): Extremely bad or serious.

  9. Radical (adjective) (جذباتی): Relating to or affecting the fundamental nature of something.

  10. Structural Incentives (noun) (ڈھانچوں کے حوالے سے متعہ): Benefits or rewards built into the fundamental structure or framework.

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dawn.com

Climate crossroads

Editorial

COP28 IS kicking off tomorrow in the UAE where Pakistan will plead its case as one of the countries most vulnerable to climate change. Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar, accompanied by Foreign Minister Jalil Abbas Jilani and Minister for Climate Change Ahmed Irfan Aslam, will call for the implementation of the Loss and Damage fund — established last year after Pakistan successfully argued that “what happens in Pakistan will not stay in Pakistan”.

The PM will also urge developed countries to deliver on the long overdue commitment of $100bn per year as climate finance for developing countries. Pakistan stands at a critical juncture, having faced the brunt of climate-induced catastrophes, most notably last year’s devastating floods.

This disaster, which affected 33m people, underscored the disproportionate effect of climate change on developing nations. Pakistan, despite its minimal contribution to global greenhouse gas emissions, has been a repeated victim of extreme weather events, with temperatures soaring to 53°C in recent years.

Its National Adaptation Plan aims to mitigate these impacts through a strategic, government-wide approach. However, such plans require resources far beyond the current capabilities of Sindh and Balochistan, both of which were inundated by the 2022 deluge.

The question of financing looms large: the World Bank estimates Pakistan needs $348bn by 2030, merely to maintain resilience. The financial gap to achieve climate-linked SDGs in developing countries has widened alarmingly, reaching $5.2tr annually. This necessitates a radical overhaul of the international financial system to better support climate-vulnerable countries.

NAP integrates climate-adaptation goals into every facet of development planning. It is imperative that global financial mechanisms mirror this integration. Unfortunately, the Global Goal on Adaptation — a collective commitment under the Paris Agreement aimed at reducing vulnerability to climate change — remains under-capitalised, and the L&D fund is yet to be made functional.

Recommendations by the UN secretary general to scale up renewable funding also need implementation. Moreover, the role of the private sector in providing structural incentives for climate-resilient investments cannot be overstated.

As Pakistan presents its case at COP28, the focus must be on ensuring that the L&D fund is tailored to meet the specific requirements of nations like itself. This includes a strong push for utilising grant-based public finance as the main source of capital and effectively executing the fund within the framework of the UNFCCC and the Paris Agreement.

The challenges are manifold, and the path ahead is fraught with complexities. Yet, the conference presents a unique opportunity for global leaders to demonstrate their commitment to climate justice.

For Pakistan and other vulnerable nations, it is not just a diplomatic engagement but a fight for survival and a plea for equitable, effective action against the climate crisis. The world must not fail them.

Published in Dawn, November 29th, 2023

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