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SUMMARY of the article “Promises, promises(COP28 summit),” Editorial, published on December 3rd, 2023

The ongoing COP28 summit in the UAE holds significant importance in the global climate discourse, especially for nations like Pakistan. Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar stressed Pakistan’s urgent need for “sufficient, additional, and predictable grant-based climate finance” from developed nations. He called for the immediate execution of the $100 billion goal for climate finance, emphasizing that this should not increase the debt burden of developing states. Mr Kakar urged for a robust framework for global adaptation goals with clear targets, indicators, and progress monitoring, proposing that at least half of climate finance be allocated to adaptation. He highlighted Pakistan’s proactive climate initiatives, including a 60% reduction in projected emissions by 2030 and the introduction of the National Adaptation Plan and Living Indus Initiative. The COP28 summit witnessed the establishment of the Loss and Damage Fund to aid poorer countries in coping with climate disasters. However, the fund falls short of the $100 billion sought by developing nations, revealing challenges in securing adequate financial support. Discussions on fossil fuels at COP28 have been contentious, with UN Secretary-General António Guterres advocating for a future without fossil fuels, in contrast to COP28 President Sultan Ahmed al-Jaber’s support for their continued use. Geopolitical tensions, particularly around the situation in Gaza, influenced the summit’s climate-focused agenda, as world leaders criticized Israel’s actions. The decisions and discussions at COP28 will shape the global response to climate change and have profound implications for vulnerable countries like Pakistan.

Easy/Short SUMMARY:

The COP28 summit in the UAE, crucial for the global climate discourse, has seen Pakistan’s caretaker Prime Minister, Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar, stressing the nation’s need for substantial climate finance from developed countries. He urged the immediate execution of the $100 billion climate finance goal without burdening developing states. Mr Kakar highlighted Pakistan’s climate initiatives, including a 60% emission reduction and the introduction of adaptation plans. The summit established the Loss and Damage Fund, though falling short of the $100 billion target. Discussions on fossil fuels were contentious, revealing complexities in addressing climate change. Geopolitical tensions, especially around Gaza, influenced the summit, adding complexity to climate negotiations.

SOLUTIONS of The Problem:

1. Financial Commitments

Ensure actionable commitments in financial, technological, and capacity-building support to address climate change and assist vulnerable countries. This involves establishing clear timelines and measurable goals for financial contributions, ensuring that funds are directed toward projects with a significant impact on climate adaptation and mitigation. It also requires collaboration among developed nations to pool resources and create a substantial financial pool dedicated to climate-related initiatives.

2. Equitable Climate Finance

Advocate for fair and equitable climate finance, emphasizing grant-based assistance to developing nations without exacerbating their debt burden. This solution entails active diplomatic efforts to address the economic disparities between developed and developing countries. It involves negotiating agreements that prioritize grants over loans, acknowledging the historical responsibility of developed nations in contributing to climate change, and ensuring that financial assistance does not become an additional burden for nations already facing economic challenges.

3. Unified Global Response

Encourage a unified, decisive global response to the climate crisis, transcending national borders and political agendas. This solution emphasizes the need for stronger international cooperation, information sharing, and joint efforts in research and development. It requires diplomatic initiatives to foster a shared understanding of the urgency of climate action, leading to unified policies, agreements, and coordinated implementation at the global level.

4. Technology Transfer

Promote the transfer of technology to developing nations to enhance their capacity for climate adaptation and mitigation. This involves creating mechanisms for the exchange of sustainable and green technologies, ensuring that developing nations have access to the latest advancements. It requires partnerships between developed and developing countries, technology-sharing agreements, and incentives for the private sector to invest in technology transfer initiatives.

5. Clear Framework for Adaptation

Establish a clear and robust framework for global adaptation goals with specific targets, indicators, and progress monitoring. This solution focuses on developing a comprehensive framework that guides nations in setting and achieving adaptation goals. It requires defining measurable indicators for assessing progress, creating transparency in reporting, and facilitating periodic reviews to adjust strategies based on evolving climate challenges.

6. Renewable Energy Promotion

Promote the widespread adoption of renewable energy sources through incentives, subsidies, and collaborative research initiatives. Encourage the development and implementation of policies that facilitate the transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, reducing carbon emissions and promoting sustainable practices.

7. Climate Education and Awareness

Invest in climate education and awareness programs to empower communities with the knowledge and skills to adapt to changing climates. This involves integrating climate-related topics into educational curricula, raising public awareness about sustainable practices, and fostering a sense of collective responsibility for environmental stewardship.

8. Nature-Based Solutions

Support and invest in nature-based solutions, such as afforestation, reforestation, and sustainable land management, to enhance natural carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. These solutions contribute to climate resilience, mitigate the impact of extreme weather events, and promote sustainable ecosystems.

9. Circular Economy Practices

Encourage the adoption of circular economy practices that minimize waste generation, promote recycling, and reduce the overall environmental footprint. Implement policies that incentivize businesses and industries to embrace sustainable production and consumption patterns, contributing to a more resilient and environmentally friendly global economy.

10. Local Community Engagement

Facilitate local community engagement in climate initiatives by involving communities in decision-making processes, ensuring that solutions are context-specific and address the unique challenges faced by different regions. Support community-led projects that focus on sustainable livelihoods, resource management, and climate adaptation measures tailored to local needs.

IMPORTANT Facts and Figures Given in the article:

  • Pakistan has emphasized the need for “sufficient, additional, and predictable grant-based climate finance” at COP28.
  • Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar proposed a 60% reduction in projected emissions by 2030 and introduced the National Adaptation Plan and Living Indus Initiative.
  • The Loss and Damage Fund, initiated at COP28 with $700 million, falls short of the $100 billion sought by developing nations.
  • Geopolitical tensions, particularly related to Gaza, played into the summit’s climate-focused agenda.
  • UN Secretary-General António Guterres called for a future without fossil fuels, while COP28 President Sultan Ahmed al-Jaber advocated for their continued use.

MCQs from the Article:

  1. What did Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar emphasize at COP28?
    A. Military alliances
    B. Grant-based climate finance
    C. Technological innovation
    D. Fossil fuel exploration

  2. What financial goal did Mr Kakar stress at COP28?
    A. $50 billion
    B. $100 billion
    C. $200 million
    D. $500 billion

  3. What is the focus of at least half of the proposed climate finance allocation according to Mr Kakar?
    A. Technological development
    B. Fossil fuel subsidies
    C. Adaptation
    D. Emission reduction

  4. What fund was established at COP28 to aid poorer countries in coping with climate disasters?
    A. Climate Adaptation Fund
    B. Loss and Damage Fund
    C. Emission Reduction Fund
    D. Green Energy Fund

  5. What did UN Secretary-General António Guterres advocate for regarding fossil fuels at COP28?
    A. A future without fossil fuels
    B. Increased fossil fuel exploration
    C. Fossil fuel subsidies
    D. Continued reliance on fossil fuels

  6. What did Prime Minister Kakar emphasize regarding climate finance at COP28?
    A. Loan-based support
    B. Developing states’ debt exacerbation
    C. Sufficient, additional, and predictable grant-based finance
    D. Fossil fuel investment

  7. What is the goal for climate finance that Prime Minister Kakar urged immediate execution of?
    A. $50 billion
    B. $100 billion
    C. $200 million
    D. $1 trillion

  8. What reduction in projected emissions did Pakistan commit to by 2030 at COP26?
    A. 30%
    B. 60%
    C. 75%
    D. 90%

  9. What financial shortfall did the Loss and Damage Fund experience at COP28?
    A. $50 million
    B. $1 billion
    C. $99.3 billion
    D. $500 million

  10. What initiatives did Prime Minister Kakar introduce at COP28 to integrate climate considerations into national development plans?
    A. Green Growth Strategy
    B. National Adaptation Plan and Living Indus Initiative
    C. Clean Energy Policy
    D. Climate Resilience Program


  1. **Implications** (noun) (اثرات): The effect or result of something; consequences.
  2. **Discourse** (noun) (گفتگو): Written or spoken communication or debate.
  3. **Manoeuvring** (noun) (چالبازی): Skillful or carefully planned movement or action.
  4. **Fervent** (adjective) (جذباتی): Having or displaying a passionate intensity.
  5. **Climate Justice** (noun) (اقلیتوں کے لیے انصاف): Fair distribution of the benefits and burdens of climate change and its resolution.
  6. **Divergent** (adjective) (مختلف): Tending to be different or develop in different directions.
  7. **Robust** (adjective) (مضبوط): Strong and healthy; vigorous.
  8. **Geopolitical** (adjective) (جغرافیائی راستہ): Relating to politics, especially international relations, as influenced by geographical factors.
  9. **Initiation** (noun) (آغاز): The action of admitting someone into a secret or obscure society or group, typically with a ritual.
  10. **Discord** (noun) (اختلاف): Disagreement between people.
  11. **Crisis** (noun) (عظیم): A time of intense difficulty, trouble, or danger.
  12. **Equitable** (adjective) (انصافی): Fair and impartial.
  13. **Mitigating** (adjective) (مخفف کرنا): Making (something bad) less severe, serious, or painful.
  14. **Complexity** (noun) (پیچیدگی): The state or quality of being intricate or complicated.
  15. **Unified** (adjective) (متحد): Formed or united into a whole.
  16. **Decisive** (adjective) (فیصلہ کن): Settling an issue; producing a definite result.
  17. **Fate** (noun) (مقدر): The development of events beyond a person’s control, regarded as determined by a supernatural power.
  18. **Discourse** (noun) (بحث و گفتگو): Written or spoken communication or debate.
  19. **Manoeuvring** (noun) (کسی موقع پر براہ کرم کرنا): A series of planned movements or actions.
  20. **Fervent** (adjective) (جذباتی): Having or displaying a passionate intensity.
  21. **Emphasis** (noun) (تاکید): Special importance, value, or prominence given to something.
  22. **Grant-based** (adjective) (ہبہ پر مبنی): Relating to financial aid given in the form of a grant, not requiring repayment.
  23. **Exacerbate** (verb) (براہ کرم ہونا): Make (a problem, bad situation, or negative feeling) worse.
  24. **Robust** (adjective) (مضبوط): Strong and healthy; vigorous.
  25. **Geopolitical** (adjective) (جغرافیائی راستے سے متعلق): Relating to politics, especially international relations, as influenced by geographical factors.
  26. **Stakes** (noun) (شرط): The amount of money or possessions that someone stands to gain or lose in a venture, investment, or contest.
  27. **Equitable** (adjective) (منصفانہ): Fair and impartial.
  28. **Mitigation** (noun) (کمی): The action of reducing the severity, seriousness, or painfulness of something.
  29. **Adaptation** (noun) (اپنانے کی صلاحیت): The action or process of adapting.
  30. **Context-Specific** (adjective) (سیاق و سباق کے مطابق): Relevant or appropriate to the context.

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THE ongoing COP28 summit in the UAE is a crucial event in the global climate discourse, with significant implications for countries like Pakistan. The summit has seen a complex mix of diplomatic manoeuvring, fervent appeals for climate justice, and sharply divergent views on the future role of fossil fuels. Caretaker Prime Minister Anwaar-ul-Haq Kakar’s address yesterday emphasised Pakistan’s urgent need for “sufficient, additional, and predictable grant-based climate finance” from developed nations. Urging the immediate execution of the $100bn goal for climate finance, Mr Kakar said this should not exacerbate the debt burden of developing states. He stressed the need for a robust framework for global adaptation goals, with clear targets, indicators, and progress monitoring. He called for at least half of climate finance to be allocated to adaptation, reflecting the growing urgency for balanced climate action. Mr Kakar also highlighted Pakistan’s proactive climate initiatives, and mentioned that at COP26 Pakistan committed to a 60pc reduction in projected emissions by 2030. He introduced the National Adaptation Plan and the Living Indus Initiative, showcasing Pakistan’s commitment to integrating climate considerations into national development plans.

The conference has been marked by major developments, notably the establishment of the Loss and Damage Fund to aid poorer countries in coping with climate disasters. Despite the fund’s initiation with $700m, it falls short of the $100bn sought by developing nations, highlighting the challenge in securing adequate financial support for those most affected by climate change. COP28’s discussions on fossil fuels have been particularly contentious. UN Secretary General António Guterres’ call for a future without fossil fuels starkly contrasts with COP28 President Sultan Ahmed al-Jaber’s advocacy for their continued use. This discord underscores the complexities and political intricacies of the climate crisis, particularly in oil-producing regions like the UAE. Moreover, geopolitical tensions, notably surrounding the situation in Gaza, played into the summit’s climate-focused agenda. Given the scale of the devastation there, several world leaders were compelled to diverge from the norm of avoiding politics at UN climate summits, using their platforms to criticise Israel’s actions in Gaza. This aspect adds another layer of complexity to the negotiations.

The decisions and discussions at COP28 will undoubtedly shape the global response to climate change and the fate of vulnerable countries like Pakistan. The summit must result in actionable commitments, not just in financial terms but also in technological and capacity-building support, to ensure an equitable path forward in the global climate effort. The climate crisis transcends national borders and political agendas, demanding a unified, decisive response. As nations convene and deliberate, the world watches, hoping for outcomes that will chart a sustainable course for the planet’s future. For Pakistan, a nation at the front-line, the stakes could not be higher.

Published in Dawn, December 3rd, 2023

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