Literacy Rate In Pakistan
According to Economic Survey 2022, the literacy rate in Pakistan is around 63%
The literacy rate of Pakistan was reported to be around 63% by the Economic Survey of 2022. The survey shows that the literacy rate has increased in both rural and urban areas, with the gender gap slowly closing over time. All provinces in Pakistan experienced an increase in literacy rates. The latest available survey regarding the Gross Enrolment Rate and Net Enrolment Rate was used for analysis since the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement survey was not conducted during 2021-22 due to the upcoming Population and Housing Census in 2022, as per the survey.
The Labour Force Survey 2020-21 shows that the literacy rate trend is at 62.8% in 2020-21, an increase from 62.4% in 2018-19. The male literacy rate was higher than the female literacy rate, at 73.4% compared to 51.9%, respectively. The cumulative education expenditures by the federal and provincial governments in FY2021 remained at 1.77% of GDP, according to the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2021-22.
Pakistan spent only 2% of its GDP on education, which is significantly lower than other countries. Norway and Chile spent the highest percentage of their GDP on education, at 6.6%, followed by Israel and New Zealand at 6.2%, the United Kingdom at 6.1%, and the United States at 6.0%. Brazil and Kenya spent 6% and 5.1% of their GDP on education, respectively. Despite being a richer country than Pakistan, Brazil spends a similar amount on education. Pakistan has one of the world’s largest populations of out-of-school children and struggles with issues of access, dropout rates, and gender disparity. The quality of education remains inadequate for most children, leading to ‘learning poverty,’ according to literature. In recent years, there have been no significant reform efforts from educational authorities at the provincial or federal levels, despite the launch and implementation of the Single National Curriculum (SNC).
Economic Survey shows the literacy rate at around 63pc. Literacy rates increased in both rural (53.7pc to 54.0pc) and urban areas (76.1pc to 77.3pc). According to the survey report, the gender gap appears to be closing over time. “Literacy rate went up in all provinces, Punjab (66.1pc to 66.3pc), Sindh (61.6pc to 61.8pc), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (52.4pc to 55.1pc) and Balochistan (53.9pc to 54.5pc),” read the survey.
While highlighting the literacy rate, the survey said that during 2021-22, the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement survey was not conducted due to the upcoming Population and Housing Census 2022.
Therefore, the survey stated that figures for the latest available survey regarding Gross Enrolment Rate (GER) and Net Enrolment Rate (NER) may be considered for the analysis.
“However, according to the Labour Force Survey 2020-21, literacy rate trends show 62.8pc in 2020-21 (as compared to 62.4pc in 2018-19), more in males (from 73.0pc to 73.4pc) than females (from 51.5pc to 51.9pc),” read the survey.
Adult Literacy in Pakistan
The current literacy rate of Pakistan is 62.3 which means that an estimated population of 60 million is illiterate in the country. Keeping in view this situation, the present government’s priority is to enhance the national literacy rate. Accordingly, the Ministry of Federal Education & Professional Training has included LITERACY in the national education priorities.
The National Commission for Human Development (NCHD), is an autonomous body of the Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, mandated to support human development efforts in Pakistan particularly in the fields of adult literacy, universal primary education, primary health, poverty alleviation, and capacity building, and volunteerism. Being the National Lead Agency for literacy, NCHD is contributing to promote literacy in the country for the last seventeen years.
Achievements in Adult Literacy
- Established over 170,190 adult literacy centers across the country including AJK and Gilgit Baltistan.
- Imparted basic literacy and numeracy skills to around 3.98 million adults, mostly women, since 2002.
- Trained 170,200 literacy teachers and 17000 supervisors in adult literacy, social mobilization, management of literacy centers etc.
- Established the National Literacy Resource Center in Islamabad. Developed more than 100 booklets and primers on literacy, practical life skills, and income generating activities.
- Introduced special packages of literacy in prisons, workplaces, and nomadic community keeping in view their specific needs.
- Successfully implemented several innovative projects in the field of literacy and skill development i.e. Mobile based literacy program, Community learning centers, Literacy centers in jails.
- NCHD received UNESCO International Literacy Award in 2006 in recognition of its outstanding work to promote literacy in Pakistan.
- Prepared the National Plan of Action for Literacy and NFBE in consultation with provincial governments.
- Established the first National Training Institute for Literacy and Non-Formal Education in Pakistan.
Pakistan GDP on Education 2022
The Economic Survey of Pakistan 2021-22 has pointed out that only 1.77 per cent of GDP was spent on the education sector last year while the literacy rate was recorded at 63pc. “Cumulative education expenditures by federal and provincial governments in FY2021 remained at 1.77pc of GDP. However, Economic Survey 2022 shows the literacy rate at around 63%.
Other Nations GDP on Education 2022
Norway and Chile reported the highest total expenditures on education institutions as a percentage of GDP (both 6.6 per cent), followed by Israel and New Zealand (both 6.2 per cent), the United Kingdom (6.1 per cent), and the United States (6.0 per cent). Brazil, a much richer country than Pakistan, spends about six per cent of its GDP on education. Kenya spends 5.1pc of its GDP on education.
However, Pakistan continues to spend only about 2pc of its GDP on education. It has one of the biggest populations of out-of-school children in the world. Education quality standards remain quite insufficient for most of the children who do end up being in school in what has been termed ‘learning poverty’ in the relevant literature. And we are still dealing with issues of access, dropout, and gender disparity.
Moreover, the last few years, even inclusive of the hoopla around the launch and implementation of the Single National Curriculum (SNC), have not seen any large-scale reform efforts from educational authorities in the provinces or at the federal level.
Source: DAWN NEWS
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